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Abortion by medication and abortion by surgery is both safe treatments. Neither technique is safer than the other, nor does one protect fertility more effectively than the other. A doctor may prescribe one technique over another based on the woman’s medical history and the number of weeks since her last period.
The risks and advantages of each operation are distinct. There is no risk of cervical or uterine damage with medication abortions because no devices or suction are used. There is a tiny probability that the abortion may be incomplete (pregnancy tissue will remain in the uterus after taking the medicine) or that the person would experience excessive bleeding.
A surgical abortion also carries a minor risk of excessive bleeding, infection, or harm to the uterus or cervix. There is also a very slight possibility that scar tissue will form inside the uterus in the weeks following the abortion (called Asherman syndrome). All of these issues are exceedingly uncommon.
It is unlikely that a medication abortion or surgical abortion will have an effect on a woman’s ability to have a baby when she is ready.